企业架构 - 涉众管理(Stakeholder Management)
 

2010-03-09 作者:周金根 来源:zhoujg.cnblogs.com

 

复杂系统的复杂不仅在与架构开发流程本身,还与是否获得大范围涉众的一致同意有关,涉众管理的好不能肯定企业架构一定做得好,但是涉众管理做得不好,企业架构肯定做不好。对于管理类型项目来说,客户的满意度有时就能体现出我们和客户一开始交流得够不够。在A阶段(架构愿景)中我们需要进行涉众管理,交付类似下图的Stakeholder Map Matrix。本篇介绍一下涉众管理。

好处

  1. 标识重要的涉众,能在早期更好的框定架构需求和范围
  2. 通过重要涉众的支持,可以获取更多的资源
  3. 早期频繁的和涉众沟通,可以确保更完整的理解架构流程

管理流程

  1. 获取涉众列表
     
    • 谁从项目中收益或遭受损失?
    • 谁控制项目?
    • 谁来设计系统?
    • 谁作出决策?
    • 谁获得IT系统并决定是否购买?
    • 谁控制资源?
    • 谁有项目要求的专业技能?
    • 谁对项目有影响力?
    • 问发起人或客户
    • 检查组织机构
    • 比较类似项目组
  2. 认识涉众的态度
     
    • 这个人是否准备好了从当前现状改变到目标架构上?如故事,准备怎么改变?
    • 这个人是否有能力作为一个企业架构发动人和推动者?如果是,他有什么能力?
    • 如何参与到企业架构活动中?只是感兴趣了解而已,还是需要详细了解?
    • 对企业架构的开发是否有合约性的承诺?

    涉众分组

    涉众

    推动力

    当前清楚改变

    需要清楚改变

    当前责任义务

    需要责任义务

    需要支持

    CIO

    张三

    CFO

    李四

  3. 知道关键涉众: Power/Interest
    • A 不关注他
    • B 让他知道
    • C 使他满意
    • D 与他协作
  4. 裁剪涉众相关交付视图(ViewPoint)

  不同项目中自行进行裁剪,在TOGAF文档中举了一个裁剪示例

涉众

参与

分类

相关视图

CxO
(Corporate Functions);
e.g., CEO, CFO, CIO, COO

This stakeholder group is interested in the high-level drivers, goals, and objectives of the organization, and howthese are translated into an effective process and IT architecture to advance the business.

KEEP SATISFIED

Business Footprint

Goal/Objective/ Service Model

Organization Chart

Program Management Office
(Corporate Functions);
e.g., Project Portfolio Managers

This stakeholder group is interested in prioritizing, funding, and aligning change activity. An understanding ofproject content and technical dependencies between projects adds a further dimension of richness to portfolio managementdecision-making.

KEEP SATISFIED

Roadmaps

Business Footprint

Application Communication

Functional Decomposition

Procurement
(Corporate Functions);
e.g., Acquirers

Major concerns for these stakeholders are understandingwhat building blocks of the architecture can be bought, andwhat constraints (or rules) exist that are relevant to the purchase.The acquirer will shop with multiple vendors looking for thebest cost solution while adhering to the constraints (or rules) appliedby the architecture, such as standards. The key concern isto make purchasing decisions that fit the architecture, and thereby toreduce the risk of added costs arising from non-compliantcomponents.

KEY PLAYERS

Cost View

Standards View

Human Resources (HR)
(Corporate Functions);
e.g., HR Managers, Training & Development Managers

Key features of the enterprise architecture are the roles and Actors that support the functions, applications, andtechnology of the organization. HR are important stakeholders in ensuring that the correct roles and actors are represented.

KEEP INFORMED

Organization Chart

Organization/Actor/ Location

Enterprise Security
(Corporate Functions);
e.g., Corporate Risk Management, Security Officers, IT Security Managers

Major concerns for this group are understanding how to ensure that the information, data, and systems of theorganization are available to only those that have permission, and how to protect the information, data, and systems fromunauthorized tampering.

KEY PLAYERS

Data Security View

Networked Computing Hardware View

Communications View

QA/Standards Group
(Corporate Functions);
e.g., Data Owners, Process Owners, Technical Standards Bodies

Major concerns for this group are ensuring the consistent governance of the organization's business, data,application, and technology assets.

KEY PLAYERS

Standards

Guidelines

Specifications

Standards View

Application Portfolio

Technology Portfolio

Technology Standards

Executive
(End User Organization);
e.g., Business Unit Directors, Business Unit CxOs, Business Unit Head of IT/Architecture

This stakeholder group is interested in the high-level drivers, goals, and objectives of the organization, and howthese are translated into an effective process and IT architecture to advance the business.

KEEP SATISFIED

Business Footprint

Goal/Objective/ Service Model

Organization Chart

Line Management
(End User Organization);
e.g., Senior Business Managers, Operations Regional Managers, IT Managers

This stakeholder is interested in the top-level functions and processes of the organization, and how the keyapplications of the IT estate support these processes.

KEY PLAYERS

Organization/Actor/ Location

Goal/Objective/ Service Model

Cost View

Application & User Location View

Business Domain Experts
(End User Organization);
e.g., Business Process Experts, Business/Process Analyst, Process Architect, Process Designer, Functional Managers, BusinessAnalyst

This stakeholder is interested in the functional aspects of processes and systems. This can cover the human actorsinvolved in the system, the user processes involved in the system, the functions required to support the processes, and theinformation required to flow in support of the processes.

KEY PLAYERS

Process Flow

Use-case

Service/Information Events

Functional Decomposition

Application - Application Communication View

Data Entity/Business Function Matrix

IT Service Management
(Systems Operations);
e.g., Service Delivery Manager

Major concerns for this group are ensuring that IT services provided to the organization meet the service levelsrequired by that organization to succeed in business.

KEEP INFORMED

Standards View

Enterprise Manageability View

IT Operations - Applications
(System Operations);
e.g., Application Architecture, System & Software Engineers

Major concerns for these stakeholders are: Development Approach, Software Modularity and Re-use, PortabilityMigration, and Interoperability.

KEY PLAYERS

Process - System Realization View

Application - Data View

Application Migration Cost View

Software Engineering View

Platform Decomposition View

Networked Computing - Hardware View

Software Distribution View

Data Entities to Application Systems View

IT Operations - Infrastructure
(System Operations);
e.g., Infrastructure Architect, Wintel support, Mid-range support, Operational DBA, Service Desk

Infrastructure stakeholders are typically concerned with location, modifiability, re-usability, and availability ofall components of the system. In general these stakeholders are concerned with ensuring that the appropriate components aredeveloped and deployed within the system in an optimal manner.

KEY PLAYERS

Platform Decomposition View

Standards View

Enterprise Manageability View

Networked Computing - Hardware View

Processing View

Environments & Locations View

IT Operations - Data/Voice Communications
(System Operations);
e.g., Network Management

Communications engineers are typically concerned with location, modifiability, re-usability, and availability ofcommunications and networking services. In general these stakeholders are concerned with ensuring that the appropriatecommunications and networking services are developed and deployed within the system in an optimal manner.

KEY PLAYERS

Communications View

Executive
(Project Organization);
e.g., Sponsor, Program Manager

This stakeholder group is interested in on-time, on-budget delivery of a change initiative that will realizeexpected benefits for the organization.

KEEP INFORMED

Architecture Requirements

Architecture Principles

Architecture Vision

Functional Decomposition

Application & User Location View

Line Management
(Project Organization);
e.g., Project Manager

This stakeholder group is responsible for operationally achieving on-time, on-budget delivery of a changeinitiative with an agreed scope.

KEEP INFORMED

Application - Application Communication View

Functional Decomposition

Environments & Locations View

Business Process/Functional Expert
(Project Organization);
e.g., Financials FICO Functional Consultant, HR Functional Consultant

This stakeholder group will elaborate the functional requirements of a change initiative based on experience andinteraction with business domain experts in the end-user organization.

KEY PLAYERS

Process Flow

Use-case

Service/Information Events

Functional Decomposition

Application - Application Communication View

Product Specialist
(Project Organization);
e.g., Portal Product Specialist

This stakeholder group is responsible for specifying technology product designs in order to meet projectrequirements and comply with the Architecture Vision of the solution.

In a packages and packaged services environment, product expertise can be used to identify product capabilities that can bereadily leveraged and can provide guidance on strategies for product customization.

KEY PLAYERS

Software Engineering View

Application - Data View

Technical Specialist
(Project Organization);
e.g., Application Architect

This stakeholder group is responsible for specifying technology product designs in order to meet projectrequirements and comply with the Architecture Vision of the solution.

KEY PLAYERS

Software Engineering View

Platform Decomposition View

Process System

Realization View

Application - Data View

Application Migration Cost View

Regulatory Bodies
(Outside Services);
e.g., Financial Regulator, Industry Regulator

The main concerns of this group are that they canreceive the information they need in order to regulate the clientorganization, and that their information requirements are beingunderstood and properly satisfied. They are specifically interestedin reporting processes, and the data and applications used to provideregulatory return information.

KEEP SATISFIED

Business Footprint

Application - Application Communication View

Suppliers
(Outside Services);
e.g., Alliance Partners, Key Suppliers

The main concerns of this group are that the information exchange requirements that they have are met in order thatagreed service contracts with the client organizations can be fulfilled.

KEEP SATISFIED

Business Footprint

Service-Information View

Application - Application Communication View

ArchiMate对ViewPoint的分类

ArchiMate架构语言从视图的目的抽象级别来对ViewPoint进行了如下分类:

Viewpoint Purpose


 

Typical Stakeholders

Purpose

Examples

Designing

architect, software developer, business process designer

navigate, design, support design decisions, compare alternatives

UML diagram, BPMN diagram, flowchart, ER diagram

Deciding

manager, CIO, CEO

decision-making

cross-reference table, landscape map, list, report

Informing

employee, customer, others

explain, convince, obtain commitment

animation, cartoon, process illustration, char

  Viewpoint Abstraction Levels


 

Typical Stakeholders

Purpose

Examples

Details

software engineer, process owner

design, manage

UML class diagram, BPMN process diagram

Coherence

operational managers

analyze dependencies, impact of-change

views expressing relations like “use”, “realize”, and “assign”

Overview

enterprise architect, CIO, CEO

change management

landscape map

企业架构 - 开篇:TOGAF介绍

Stakeholder Analysis Guidelines

What is Stakeholder Analysis



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 讲座  公链的技术架构
 讲师:冯翔
  时间:2018-10-14
 
 
 
 

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