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Cppcheck 1.54 C/C++静态代码分析工具
 
447 次浏览     评价:  
 2018-7-30 
 
编辑推荐:
本文来自于网络,本文主要介绍的是C/C++代码分析工具Cppcheck,以及其操作步骤的详细介绍。

Cppcheck是一个C/C++代码分析工具,只检测那些编译器通常无法检测到的bug类型。

官方上建议让编译器提供尽量多的警告提示:

1.使用Visual C++的话,应使用警告等级4

2.使用GCC的话,参看Warning options - using GCC

官方地址:http://cppcheck.sourceforge.net/

当前版本:1.54 for windows

安装界面如下:

安装完后,双击cppcheckgui.exe启动其GUI程序:

工具栏第一个按钮可以添加检测的目录,但是这里不支持中文路径。测试官方的例子,新建一个文件file1.c,内容如下:

int main()
{
char a[10];
a[10] =0;
return 0;
}

用此工具进行检测,结果如下图所示:

一下子就分析出了其中的警告和错误。用命令行检测的话,可以支持中文路径,效果如下图所示:

命令行方式,默认只显示错误的信息,使用--enable打开其他提示信息,如下:

cppcheck.exe --enable=all"E:\项目\测试"

在Visual Studio下使用的话,步骤如下:

1.在Visual Studio菜单栏"工具"→"外部工具",点击"添加",内容如下:

标题:Cppcheck
命令:D:\Program Files\Cppcheck\cppcheck.exe
参数:--enable=all--template=vs $(SolutionDir)
勾选"使用输出窗口"

2.使用时,点击"工具"→"Cppcheck"即可,如下图所示:

双击提示内容,即可定位到所在行。

附录:

1.cppcheck命令行参数

Syntax:

cppcheck [OPTIONS] [files or paths]

If a directory is given instead of a filename, *.cpp, *.cxx, *.cc, *.c++, *.c, *.tpp, and *.txx files are checked recursively from the given directory.

--append=<file> This allows you to provide information about
functions by providing an implementation for them.
--check-config Check cppcheck configuration. The normal code
analysis is disabled by this flag.
-D<ID>  By default Cppcheck checks all configurations.
Use -D to limit the checking to a particular configuration.
Example: '-DDEBUG=1 -D__cplusplus'.
-U<ID> By default Cppcheck checks all configurations.
Use -U to explicitly hide certain #ifdef <ID> code paths from checking.
Example: '-UDEBUG'
--enable=<id> Enable additional checks. The available ids are:
* all
  Enable all checks
* style
  Enable all coding style checks.
All messages with the severities 'style', 'performance' and 'portability' are enabled.
* performance
  Enable performance messages
* portability
  Enable portability messages
* information
  Enable information messages
* unusedFunction
  Check for unused functions
* missingInclude
  Warn if there are missing includes.
For detailed information, use '--check-config'.
Several ids can be given if you separate them with commas.
See also --std
--error-exitcode=<n> If errors are found, integer [n] is returned instead of
the default '0'. '1' is returned if arguments are not
valid or if no input files are provided. Note that
your operating system can modify this value, e.g.
'256' can become '0'.
--errorlist  Print a list of all the error messages in XML format.
--exitcode-suppressions=<file> Used when certain messages should be
displayed but should not cause a non-zero exitcode.
--file-list=<file> Specify the files to check in a text file.
Add one filename per line. When file is '-,'
the file list will be read from standard input.
-f, --force Force checking of all configurations in files.
If used together with '--max-ifdefs=',
the last option is the one that is effective.
-h, --help Print this help.
-I <dir>   Give path to search for include files.
Give several -I parameters to give several paths.
First given path is searched for contained header
files first. If paths are relative to source files,
this is not needed.
--includes-file=<file> Specify directory paths to search for included header
files in a text file. Add one include path per line.
First given path is searched for contained
header files first. If paths are relative to
source files, this is not needed.
-i <dir or file>  Give a source file or source file directory
to exclude from the check. This applies only to
source files so header files included by source files
are not matched. Directory name is matched to all
parts of the path.
--inline-suppr Enable inline suppressions. Use them by placing one
or more comments, like: '// cppcheck-suppress warningId'
on the lines
before the warning to suppress.
-j <jobs>  Start [jobs] threads to do the checking simultaneously.
--max-configs=<limit> Maximum number of configurations to check in a file
before skipping it. Default is '12'. If used together
with '--force', the last option is the
one that is effective.
--platform=<type> Specifies platform specific types and sizes. The available platforms are:
* unix32
32 bit unix variant
* unix64
64 bit unix variant
* win32A
32 bit Windows ASCII character encoding
* win32W
32 bit Windows UNICODE character encoding
* win64
64 bit Windows
-q, --quiet Only print error messages.
-rp, --relative-paths
-rp=<paths>, --relative-paths=<paths>
Use relative paths in output. When given, <paths> are
used as base. You can separate multiple paths by ';'.
Otherwise path where source files are
searched is used. We use string comparison
to create relative paths, so using
e.g. ~ for home folder does not
work. It is currently only possible to apply the base
paths to files that are on a lower level in the
directory tree.
--report-progress  Report progress messages while checking a file.
--rule=<rule> Match regular expression.
--rule-file=<file> Use given rule file. For more information,
see: https://sourceforge.net
/projects/cppcheck/files/Articles/
-s, --style Deprecated, please use '--enable=style' instead
--std=<id> Enable some standard related checks.
The available options are:
* posix
Checks related to POSIX-specific functionality
* c99
C99 standard related checks
* c++11
C++11 standard related checks
Example to enable more than one checks:
'cppcheck --std=c99 --std=posix file.cpp'
--suppress=<spec>  Suppress warnings that match <spec>.
The format of <spec> is:
[error id]:[filename]:[line]
The [filename] and [line] are optional.
If [error id] is a wildcard '*', all error ids match.
--suppressions-list=<file> Suppress warnings listed in the file. Each
suppression is in the same format as <spec> above.
--template='<text>' Format the error messages. E.g.
'{file}:{line},{severity},{id},{message}'
or '{file}({line}):({severity}) {message}'
Pre-defined templates: gcc, vs, edit.
-v, --verbose Output more detailed error information.
--version Print out version number.
--xml   Write results in xml format to error stream (stderr).
--xml-version=<version> Select the XML file version. Currently
versions 1 and 2 are available. The default version is 1.

Example usage:

# Recursively check the current folder. Print the progress on the screen and write errors to a file:

cppcheck . 2> err.txt

# Recursively check ../myproject/ and don't print progress:

cppcheck --quiet ../myproject/

# Check only files one.cpp and two.cpp and give all information there is:

cppcheck -v -s one.cpp two.cpp

# Check f.cpp and search include files from inc1/ and inc2/:

cppcheck -I inc1/ -I inc2/ f.cpp

2.检测内容

64-bit portability

Check if there is 64-bit portability issues:

    assign address to/from int/lon

Auto Variables

A pointer to a variable is only valid as long as the variable is in scope. Check:

    returning a pointer to auto or temporary variable

    assigning address of an variable to an effective parameter of a function

    returning reference to local/temporary variable

    returning address of function parameter

Boost usage

Check for invalid usage of Boost:

    container modification during BOOST_FOREACH

Bounds checking

out of bounds checking

Class

Check the code for each class.

    Missing constructors

    Are all variables initialized by the constructors?

    Warn if memset, memcpy etc are used on a class

    If it's a base class, check that the destructor is virtual

    Are there unused private functions

    'operator=' should return reference to self

    'operator=' should check for assignment to self

    Constness for member functions

Exception Safety

Checking exception safety

    Throwing exceptions in destructors

    Throwing exception during invalid state

    Throwing a copy of a caught exception instead of rethrowing the original exception

    exception caught by value instead of by reference

Match assignments and conditions

Match assignments and conditions:

    Mismatching assignment and comparison => comparison is always true/false

    Mismatching lhs and rhs in comparison => comparison is always true/false

    Detect matching 'if' and 'else if' conditions

Memory leaks (address not taken)

Not taking the address to allocated memory

Memory leaks (class variables)

If the constructor allocate memory then the destructor must deallocate it.

Memory leaks (function variables)

Is there any allocated memory when a function goes out of scope

Memory leaks (struct members)

Don't forget to deallocate struct members

Non reentrant functions

Warn if any of these non reentrant functions are used:

    crypt

    ctermid

    ecvt

    fcvt

    fgetgrent

    fgetpwent

    fgetspent

    gcvt

    getgrent

    getgrgid

    getgrnam

    gethostbyaddr

    gethostbyname

    gethostbyname2

    gethostent

    getlogin

    getnetbyaddr

    getnetbyname

    getnetgrent

    getprotobyname

    getpwent

    getpwnam

    getpwuid

    getrpcbyname

    getrpcbynumber

    getrpcent

    getservbyname

    getservbyport

    getservent

    getspent

    getspnam

    gmtime

    localtime

    readdir

    strtok

    tempnam

    ttyname

Null pointer

Null pointers

    null pointer dereferencing

Obsolete functions

Warn if any of these obsolete functions are used:

    asctime

    asctime_r

    bcmp

    bcopy

    bsd_signal

    bzero

    ctime

    ctime_r

    ecvt

    fcvt

    ftime

    gcvt

    getcontext

    gethostbyaddr

    gethostbyname

    getwd

    index

    makecontext

    pthread_attr_getstackaddr

    pthread_attr_setstackaddr

    rand_r

    rindex

    scalbln

    swapcontext

    tmpnam

    tmpnam_r

    ualarm

    usleep

    utime

    vfork

    wcswcs

Other

Other checks

    Assigning bool value to pointer (converting bool value to address)

    bad usage of the function 'sprintf' (overlapping data)

    division with zero

    using fflush() on an input stream

    scoped object destroyed immediately after construction

    assignment in an assert statement

    sizeof for array given as function argument

    sizeof for numeric given as function argument

    using sizeof(pointer) instead of the size of pointed data

    incorrect length arguments for 'substr' and 'strncmp'

    invalid usage of output stream. For example: std::cout << std::cout;'

    wrong number of arguments given to 'printf' or 'scanf;'

    double free() or double closedir()

    C-style pointer cast in cpp file

    casting between incompatible pointer types

    redundant if

    bad usage of the function 'strtol'

    unsigned division

    Dangerous usage of 'scanf'

    passing parameter by value

    Incomplete statement

    check how signed char variables are used

    variable scope can be limited

    condition that is always true/false

    unusal pointer arithmetic. For example: "abc" + 'd'

    redundant assignment in a switch statement

    redundant strcpy in a switch statement

    look for 'sizeof sizeof ..'

    look for calculations inside sizeof()

    assignment of a variable to itself

    mutual exclusion over || always evaluating to true

    Clarify calculation with parentheses

    using increment on boolean

    comparison of a boolean with a non-zero integer

    comparison of a boolean expression with an integer other than 0 or 1

    suspicious condition (assignment+comparison)

    suspicious condition (runtime comparison of string literals)

    suspicious condition (string literals as boolean)

    duplicate break statement

    unreachable code

    testing if unsigned variable is negative

    testing is unsigned variable is positive

    using bool in bitwise expression

    Suspicious use of ; at the end of 'if/for/while' statement.

    incorrect usage of functions from ctype library.

    optimisation: detect post increment/decrement

STL usage

Check for invalid usage of STL:

    out of bounds errors

    misuse of iterators when iterating through a container

    mismatching containers in calls

    dereferencing an erased iterator

    for vectors: using iterator/pointer after push_back has been used

    optimisation: use empty() instead of size() to guarantee fast code

    suspicious condition when using find

    redundant condition

    common mistakes when using string::c_str()

    using auto pointer (auto_ptr)

    useless calls of string functions

Uninitialized variables

Uninitialized variables

    using uninitialized variables and data

Unused functions

Check for functions that are never called

UnusedVar

UnusedVar checks

    unused variable

    allocated but unused variable

    unred variable

    unassigned variable

    unused struct member

Using postfix operators

Warn if using postfix operators ++ or -- rather than prefix operator

   
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