您可以捐助,支持我们的公益事业。

1元 10元 50元





认证码:  验证码,看不清楚?请点击刷新验证码 必填



  求知 文章 文库 Lib 视频 iPerson 课程 认证 咨询 工具 讲座 Modeler   Code  
会员   
   
 
     
   
 订阅
  捐助
cucumber自动化测试官方教程
 
作者:Graddy
4234 次浏览     评价:  
 2019-11-4
 
编辑推荐:
本文讲解了如何安装Cucumber,如何遵循BDD流程来开发一个简单的方法,以及如何使用该方法来评估多个场景,希望能对您有所帮助。
本文来自于博客园,由火龙果软件琪琪编辑、推荐。

安装

cucumber是一款测试工具。可用于大多数主流编程语言。比如JAVA、JS、Ruby、C++、Lua、Android、Kotlin、C#/F#、PHP、Python、Go、Groovy、Scala等等。其中JAVA、JS、Ruby的代码托管在cucumber下。官方建议选择与生产代码相同的平台或编程语言的实现。本文主要是JAVA平台下的介绍教程。使用方法非常简单,创建一个mvn工程,在pom.xml文件引入以下依赖即可。

<dependency>
<groupId>io.cucumber</groupId>
<artifactId>cucumber-java8</artifactId>
<version>4.2.0</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

也可以根据骨架创建cucumber项目。

创建一个空的Cucumber项目

我们首先使用cucumber- prototype Maven插件创建一个新项目目录。打开终端,转到要创建项目的目录(比如本文是hellocucumber),运行以下命令:

mvn archetype:generate \
-DarchetypeGroupId=io.cucumber \
-DarchetypeArtifactId=cucumber-archetype \
-DarchetypeVersion=2.3.1.2 \
-DgroupId=hellocucumber \
-DartifactId=hellocucumber \
-Dpackage=hellocucumber \
-Dversion=1.0.0-SNAPSHOT \
-DinteractiveMode=false

你应该得到如下结果:

[INFO] Project created from Archetype in dir:
hellocucumber/cucumber
[INFO] -------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] -------------------------------------

切换到刚才运行命令创建的目录:

cd hellocucumber

在IntelliJ IDEA(或者eclipse都行)中打开项目:

文件->打开…->(选择pom.xml)

选择Open as Project

现在,您已经安装了一个简单的Cucumber项目。

验证cucumber安装

mvn test

您应该看到如下内容:

------------------------------------
T E S T S
------------------------------------
Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
No features found at [classpath:hellocucumber]
0 Scenarios
0 Steps
0m0.004s
Tests run: 0, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0,
Time elapsed: 0.541 sec
Results :
Tests run: 0, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
[INFO] -----------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] -----------------------------------------

Cucumber的输出告诉我们它没有找到任何可以运行的东西。

写一个Scenario(场景)

当我们使用Cucumber进行行为驱动开发时,我们使用具体的例子来指定我们希望软件做什么。 Scenario是在生产代码之前编写的。它们以可执行规范的形式开始生命。随着生产代码的出现,场景扮演了事实文档和自动化测试的角色。

在Cucumber中,一个example称为Scenario。Scenario定义在.feature文件中,这些文件存储在src/test/resources/hellocucumber目录(或子目录)中。

一个具体的例子就是:星期天不是星期五。

创建一个名为src/test/resources/
hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature的文件,
文件包括以下内容:

Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday
Given today is Sunday
When I ask whether it's Friday yet
Then I should be told "Nope"

这个文件的第一行以关键字'''Feature'''开始:后面跟着一个名称。最好使用与文件名类似的名称。

第二行是对该特性的简要描述。Cucumber并不执行这一行,它只是一个文档。

第4行,场景:Sunday is not Friday是一个scenario,它是说明软件应该如何工作的具体示例。

最后三行以Given开头,When和Then是我们的场景的步骤。这就是Cucumber将要执行的操作。

看一个未定义的scenario报告

现在我们有了一个场景,我们可以让Cucumber执行它:

mvn test

Cucumber告诉我们有一个undefined的场景和三个undefined的步骤。它还建议我们使用一些代码片段来define这些步骤:

-------------------------------------
T E S T S
-------------------------------------
Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday # hellocucumber/
is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is Sunday # null
When I ask whether it's Friday yet # null
Then I should be told "Nope" # null
1 Scenarios (1 undefined)
3 Steps (3 undefined)
0m0.040s
You can implement missing steps with the snippets below:
@Given("^today is Sunday$")
public void today_is_Sunday() {
// Write code here that turns the phrase above
into concrete actions
throw new PendingException();
}
@When("^I ask whether it's Friday yet$")
public void i_ask_whether_it_s_Friday_yet() {
// Write code here that turns the phrase above
into concrete actions
throw new PendingException();
}
@Then("^I should be told \"([^\"]*)\"$")
public void i_should_be_told(String arg1) {
// Write code here that turns the phrase above
into concrete actions
throw new PendingException();
}

复制以上未定义步骤的三个代码片段:

@Given("^today is Sunday$")
public void today_is_Sunday() {
// Write code here that turns the phrase above
into concrete actions
throw new PendingException();
}

@When("^I ask whether it's Friday yet$")
public void i_ask_whether_it_s_Friday_yet() {
// Write code here that turns the phrase above
into concrete actions
throw new PendingException();
}

@Then("^I should be told \"([^\"]*)\"$")
public void i_should_be_told(String arg1) {
// Write code here that turns the phrase above
into concrete actions
throw new PendingException();
}

并将它们粘贴到src/test/java/hellocucumber/steps.java中。

看一个pending的scenario报告

再次运行Cucumber: mvn test。这次的输出略有不同:

------------------------------------
T E S T S
------------------------------------
Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday

Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday # hellocucumber/
is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is Sunday # Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday()
cucumber.api.PendingException: TODO: implement me
at hellocucumber.Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday
(Stepdefs.java:12)
at ?.today is Sunday(hellocucumber/
is_it_friday_yet.feature:5)

When I ask whether it's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_it_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "Nope" #
Stepdefs.i_should_be_told(String)

1 Scenarios (1 pending)
3 Steps (2 skipped, 1 pending)
0m0.188s

cucumber.api.PendingException:
TODO: implement me
at hellocucumber.Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday
(Stepdefs.java:12)
at ?.today is Sunday(hellocucumber/
is_it_friday_yet.feature:5)

Cucumber找到我们的步骤定义并执行它们。它们当前被标记为pending,这意味着我们需要让它们做一些有用的事情。

看一个falling的scenario报告

下一步是按照步骤定义中的注释所告诉我们的去做:

Write code here that turns the
phrase above into concrete actions

尝试在代码中使用与步骤中相同的单词。

将步骤定义代码更改为:

package hellocucumber;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;
import cucumber.api.java.en.When;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;
import static org.junit.Assert.*;


class IsItFriday {
static String isItFriday(String today) {
return null;
}
}
public class Stepdefs {
private String today;
private String actualAnswer;
@Given("^today is Sunday$")
public void today_is_Sunday() {
today = "Sunday";
}
@When("^I ask whether it's Friday yet$")
public void i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet() {
actualAnswer = IsItFriday.isItFriday(today);
}
@Then("^I should be told \"([^\"]*)\"$")
public void i_should_be_told(String expectedAnswer) {
assertEquals(expectedAnswer, actualAnswer);
}
}

再次运行mvn test :

-------------------------------------
T E S T S
-------------------------------------
Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday

Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday # hellocucumber/
is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is Sunday # Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday()
When I ask whether it's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "Nope" # Stepdefs.
i_should_be_told(String)
java.lang.AssertionError: expected:<Nope> but was:<null>
at org.junit.Assert.fail(Assert.java:88)
at org.junit.Assert.failNotEquals
(Assert.java:834)
at org.junit.Assert.assertEquals
(Assert.java:118)
at org.junit.Assert.assertEquals
(Assert.java:144)
at hellocucumber.Stepdefs.i_should_be_told
(Stepdefs.java:30)
at ?.I should be told "Nope"
(hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:7)
Failed scenarios:
hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
# Sunday isn't Friday
1 Scenarios (1 failed)
3 Steps (1 failed, 2 passed)
0m0.404s

这就是进步! 但前两步已经passing,最后一步却failing了。

看一个passing的scenario报告

让我们做最简单的事情来让场景通过。在本例中,这只是为了让我们的方法返回Nope :

static String isItFriday
(String today) {
return "Nope";
}

再次运行mvn test:

-------------------------------------
T E S T S
-------------------------------------
Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday #
hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is Sunday # Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday()
When I ask whether it's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "Nope"
# Stepdefs.i_should_be_told(String)
1 Scenarios (1 passed)
3 Steps (3 passed)
0m0.255s

恭喜你!这是第一个成功(passing)的Cucumber Scenario。

添加另一个失败的测试

下一件要测试的事情是,我们也会在周五得到正确的结果。

更新is-it-friday-yet.feature文件:

Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday
Given today is Sunday
When I ask whether it's Friday yet
Then I should be told "Nope"


Scenario: Friday is Friday
Given today is Friday
When I ask whether it's Friday yet
Then I should be told "TGIF"

我们需要添加一个步骤定义,将today设置为“Friday”:

@Given("^today is Friday$")
public void today_is_Friday() {
this.today = "Friday";
}

当我们运行这个测试时,它将失败。

Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday
# hellocucumber/isitfriday.feature:4
Given today is "Sunday" # Stepdefs.today_is(String)
When I ask whether is's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "Nope"
# Stepdefs.i_should_be_told(String)
Scenario: Friday is Friday
# hellocucumber/is_it_friday.feature:9
Given today is "Friday"
# Stepdefs.today_is(String)
When I ask whether is's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "TGIF"
# Stepdefs.i_should_be_told(String)
org.junit.ComparisonFailure:
expected:<[TGIF]> but was:<[Nope]>
at org.junit.Assert.assertEquals
(Assert.java:115)
at org.junit.Assert.assertEquals
(Assert.java:144)
at hellocucumber.Stepdefs.
i_should_be_told(Stepdefs.java:26)
at ?.I should be told "TGIF"
(hellocucumber/is_it_friday.feature:12)
org.junit.ComparisonFailure:
Expected :TGIF
Actual :Nope
<Click to see difference>


at org.junit.Assert.assertEquals
(Assert.java:115)
at org.junit.Assert.assertEquals
(Assert.java:144)
at hellocucumber.Stepdefs.
i_should_be_told(Stepdefs.java:26)
at ?.I should be told "TGIF"
(hellocucumber/is_it_friday.feature:12)

那是因为我们还没有实现逻辑!我们接着做。

让它通过

我们应该更新我们的语句来实际评估Today是否等于“Friday”。

static String isItFriday(String today) {
if (today.equals("Friday")) {
return "TGIF";
}
return "Nope";
}

再次运行mvn test:

-------------------------------------
T E S T S
-------------------------------------
Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario: Friday is Friday
# hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is Friday # Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday()
When I ask whether it's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "TGIF"
# Stepdefs.i_should_be_told(String)
Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday
# hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is Sunday # Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday()
When I ask whether it's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "Nope"
# Stepdefs.i_should_be_told(String)
2 scenarios (2 passed)
6 steps (6 passed)
0m0.255s

使用变量和实例

所以,我们都知道一周中不止周日和周五。让我们更新我们的scenario以使用变量并评估更多的可能性。我们将使用变量和示例来计算星期五、星期天和其他任何时间! 更新is-it-friday-yet.feature文件。注意,当我们开始使用多个Examples时,我们是如何从一个Scenario切换到Scenario Outline的。

Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario Outline: Today is or is not Friday
Given today is "<day>"
When I ask whether it's Friday yet
Then I should be told "<answer>"
Examples:
| day | answer |
| Friday | TGIF |
| Sunday | Nope |
| anything else! | Nope |

我们需要用一个以为字符串的步骤定义来替换today is Sunday和today is Friday的步骤定义。更新stepdefs.java文件如下:

package hellocucumber;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;
import cucumber.api.java.en.When;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;
import static org.junit.Assert.*;
class IsItFriday {
static String isItFriday(String today) {
if (today.equals("Friday")) {
return "TGIF";
}
return "Nope";
}
}
public class Stepdefs {
private String today;
private String actualAnswer;
@Given("^today is \"([^\"]*)\"$")
public void today_is(String today) {
this.today = today;
}
@When("^I ask whether it's Friday yet$")
public void i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet() {
this.actualAnswer = IsItFriday.isItFriday(today);
}
@Then("^I should be told \"([^\"]*)\"$")
public void i_should_be_told(String expectedAnswer) {
assertEquals(expectedAnswer, actualAnswer);
}
}

再次执行mvn test:

-------------------------------------
T E S T S
-------------------------------------
Running hellocucumber.RunCucumberTest
Feature: Is it Friday yet?
Everybody wants to know when it's Friday
Scenario Outline: Today is or is not Friday # hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is <day>
# hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:5
When I ask whether it's Friday yet # hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:6
Then I should be told <answer>
# hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:7
Scenario: Sunday isn't Friday
# hellocucumber/is_it_friday_yet.feature:4
Given today is Sunday # Stepdefs.today_is_Sunday()
When I ask whether it's Friday yet # Stepdefs.i_ask_whether_is_s_Friday_yet()
Then I should be told "Nope"
# Stepdefs.i_should_be_told(String)
Examples:
| day | answer |
| "Friday" | "TGIF" |
| "Sunday" | "Nope" |
| "anything else!" | "Nope" |
3 scenarios (3 passed)
9 steps (9 passed)
0m0.255s

重构

现在我们有了工作代码,我们应该做一些重构:

我们应该将isItFriday方法从测试代码移到生产代码中。 我们可以在某个时候从步骤定义中提取helper方法,用于我们在几个地方使用的方法。

   
4234 次浏览     评价: 订阅 捐助
相关文章

性能测试十问:测试经理篇
web前端性能优化进阶路
性能测试综述
VS2010中自动化测试—Web性能测试
相关文档

性能测试
性能测试执行之测试脚本录制
性能测试进阶1-流程篇
性能测试进阶2-方案篇
相关课程

性能测试方法与技术
使用LoadRunner进行性能测试
Android应用的性能测试
基于Android的单元、性能测试